Fiber Optic Technology in humans movement tracking

Fiber Optic Technology in humans movement trackingA team of researchers from the US university applied fiber optic technology to demonstrate the changes in city traffic because of the lockdown. Scientists had tapped into an underground telecommunication fiber optic cable and made a scientific monitoring device. Thanks to this fiber optic system, they could watch how Covid-19 brought life to a halt.

According to researchers, they shined a laser through the fiber optics and could locate vibrations from cars and pedestrians above. The fiber optic cable could detect the movement through the unique seismic signals from them. That allowed scientists to create a detailed picture of how a community ground to a halt, and then slowly came back to life when the lockdown eased.

This experiment with the fiber optic cable showed that the pedestrian traffic almost disappeared in April and stayed almost the same in June. However, the car traffic started increasing after initially declining. As a result, the vehicle traffic is actually back to normal, while people walking is still minimal. Moreover, scientists could distinguish the vibration signals from fiber optic cable from construction vehicles. In April there was no industrial activity as the construction halted. But in June the construction vehicles’ movement had started again.

Fiber optic cables trap light pulses and transport them to vast distances as signals. And when a car or person passes, the vibrations introduce a disturbance, and a scattering light returns. The researchers measured vibrations at different lengths of the fiber optic cable by estimating the time it took the back-scattered light to travel. This method is well-known as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).

Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) can become an instrument for tracking people’s movement instead of cell phone location data studying. Researchers can apply fiber optic cables to monitor pedestrians and cars. However, DAS can’t help in identifying a particular car or person. It can only identify a type of vehicle, for example, truck or bike.

In comparison with usual seismometers, such fiber optic cable is cost-effective and doesn’t need a source of power. There is a need for just an FBG interrogator that gets the information.

Engineers have already produced DAS systems to detect soil deformation, biologists use offshore fiber optic cables to listen in on whales, and scientists made measurements of earthquakes and water temperature in the Arctic with the help of FBG sensors. Every day fiber optic technology gets a new application.

Optromix is a DAS system manufacturer that provides top-of-the-line distributed acoustic sensing systems suitable for monitoring commerce networks. If you have any questions or would like to buy a DAS system, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Optic Technology as pipeline leak detection method

Fiber Optic Technology for the pipeline leak detectionSpecial fiber optic technology can make fiber optic cable a sensing one. That solves many challenges including monitoring long units like pipelines, tunnels, or power cables. With the help of fiber optic sensors, it is more likely to find the leak in a short time. FBG interrogator sends a laser pulse through the fiber optic cable and the light comes back to the interrogator. The back scattered light delivers back acoustic, vibration, and thermal data.

Distributed sensing is widely used as an external pipeline leak detection method. Distributed sensing systems easily detect changes in temperature, noise, or vibration. Distributed sensing helps in detecting internal events, for example, liquid accumulations in gas pipelines, slugs, and flow constrictions.

Nowadays, distributed sensing pipeline leak detection software includes a wide variety of pipeline applications. The systems that apply distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) or distributed temperature sensing (DTS) are already produced in many projects across tens of thousands of kilometers of pipelines. Therefore distributed sensing systems already proved to be the most cost-effective in leak detecting.

There are standard fiber optic cables with suitable distributed sensing systems compatible with single-mode and multi-mode fibers or with a combination of them. According to the scientists, fiber optic cables with the usage of single-mode fibers are suitable for both DAS and DTS. While fiber optic cables using multi-mode fibers could enhance the DTS systems’ performance. Distributed sensing systems emphasize the detection of thermal and acoustic leak signatures. That’s why there are different types of DAS and DTS systems according to their thermal, acoustic detection capabilities, and performance requirements.

For example, a research team from South Africa is currently applying fiber optic solutions for the detection of leaks in pipelines. Scientists investigated leak detection using fiber Bragg gratings. These were applied to measure strains and temperature on pipelines and in the ground adjacent to pipelines. With the help of fiber optic technology, they could detect water leaks by burying a fiber optic cable into a pipe trench with a new pipe or place it above an existing pipe.

The scientists hope that after a number of experiments they could implement distributed sensing systems in South Africa by monitoring the pipes and delivering the data about water leaks into a leakage detection center. So fiber optic solutions would give an opportunity to fix the leak quickly without losing massive volumes of water. According to them, fiber optic technology shows great promise as a highly effective leak detection system.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) in the oil and gas industry

DAS in the oil and gas industryAccording to scientists, nowadays we can see newly developed distributed sensing systems that can have many appliances including monitoring of wells’ conditions in the oil and gas industry. Mostly, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is applied in these spheres.

The engineers have an opportunity to make decisions on operational optimization onsite with the usage of the data provided by distributed fiber optic sensors. The fiber optic technology can help in well performance improvement as well as in keeping safety at the well site. And as a result, it optimizes production from oil and gas wells. In comparison with distributed sensing, there is no such method that could provide such quality and extent of detail about physical conditions.

Mostly, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is produced to record fluid and gas flow signals, listen to hydraulic fracturing-related signals, etc. Distributed sensing systems trace changes in acoustic vibrations along the entire length of a fiber optic cable in real-time. In the fiber optic cable, there are thousands of detection points at minimal spatial intervals. Compared to the usual sensing systems, distributed sensing does not rely on discrete sensors at predetermined points. Distributed sensing system uses the whole fiber optics itself as a sensing unit.

Therefore, fiber optic technology is suitable for those who want to apply environmental monitoring in sensitive geologic operations. Thanks to the length of the fiber optic cable and its working ability in severe environmental conditions for long, it is quite popular for such use. The down hole fiber optic sensor application provides for oil and gas wells, flow-back operations, geothermal wells, etc.

The ability of measurement along the complete length of the fiber optic cable can be applied for many other applications like the characterization of contaminated bedrock aquifers and monitoring of geologic carbon sequestration projects. In addition to that, distributed sensing systems can also register the conditions of the near-wellbore area of subsurface rock formations.

DAS system manufacturers always have an aim of making their fiber optic solutions better. For the DAS systems, it is the regulation of acoustic and vibratory noise sensing. The ambient noise is always in sites and should not be measured.

That is why the next scientific goal for DAS technology is the creation of a portable vibration isolation system to maximize the distributed acoustic sensing system’s dynamic range.

Optromix is a DAS system manufacturer that provides top-of-the-line distributed acoustic sensing systems suitable for monitoring commerce networks. If you have any questions or would like to buy a DAS system, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors in monitoring road conditions

FBG sensors monitoring road conditionsScientists from Latvia made a number of experiments using fiber optic technology for monitoring the condition of the road surface. They chose special FBG sensors that can collect data about roadway changes, like changes in the strain and temperature. These fiber optic solutions that also include applying fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) will help in designing reliable roads and planning for road repairs.

The process of pavement destroying can’t be completely stopped. However, we can apply more strong materials and repair small cracks in the structure at the early stages. That is why we require new monitoring methods and the most effective ways are fiber optic solutions.

According to the research, the fiber sensors could define the roadway defects and measure the load on the site. So with the help of fiber optic sensors, it will be possible to consider the pressure and vibration created by transport in the area and strengthen the coverage in the right places.

Scientists chose fiber optic systems because fiber optic sensors are highly sensitive and do not require a power supply. Fiber sensors can be installed in an existing fiber optic network and receive data remotely. The basis of fiber optic sensors contains fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). It is a section in the middle of an optical fiber, where the refractive index of light has been changed using ultraviolet radiation. As a result, such a section always reflects radiation only in a very small part of the spectrum and transmits the rest of the light without loss. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) can be formed so that the wavelength of the reflected light depends on changes in temperature, pressure, or other physical aspects. Because of these parameters, fiber Bragg grating sensors are effective for application.

Scientists placed two types of fiber optic sensors on one of the highways during its renovation. The first one measured deformations in construction, the other detected temperature. Since unprotected fiber sensors are quite fragile, they were packed in composite and ceramic tubes. The first test demonstrated that the most precise strain measurements are possible when the load is placed exactly at the location of the fiber optic sensors. Researchers also specified that temperature plays a crucial role in the deformations of the asphalt. And the final key aspect of the tests with fiber optic technology was monitoring real traffic and defining the truck’s quantity.

Finally, the experiments demonstrate that fiber optic sensors can measure the deformations of the roadway with sufficient accuracy. By applying FBG sensors specialists can determine the moment when the limit of permissible deformations will be exceeded in the selected area. That will definitely help in designing new roads and repairing the existing ones.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com