Articles

about Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG), FBG Sensors and Monitoring Systems

Why DTS systems are beneficial to pipelines

on May 25, 2020

jj-ying-4XvAZN8_WHo-unsplashAlmost all pipelines suffer from numerous leaks during their operation, therefore, they require systems for fiber optic pipeline leak detection. Despite the fact that there are various techniques for leak detection, distributed temperature sensing systems (DTS) are considered to be an ideal option for the purpose.

Distributed temperature sensing is a technique that has been applied for more than two decades. DTS systems are regarded as the best option when a leak leads to a temperature differential between the ambient air and the escaping liquid or gas. The thing is that “temperature differentials generally occur when the pipeline product is at high pressure, high temperature or low temperature, all relative to ambient, which is characteristic of numerous pipelines.”

The operating principle of DTS is based on fiber optic sensing systems that operate as a sensor and measure temperatures along the entire length of optical fibers. Herewith, the optical fiber is put along the outside of the pipeline within the protective coating. It should be noted that the accurate installation location depends on the relative area(s) of the anticipated temperature differential caused by a leak, and on other reasons such as available mounting space.

To be more precise, DTS systems allow fastly identifying and precisely locating slow leaks at weld points, pipeline fittings, and herewith, sudden leaks. Fiber optic pipeline leak detection system enables detecting the precise location of leaks, often overcoming other distributed sensing technology. The fact is that even a tiny leak leads to a crucial temperature change, one that can be recorded by the DTS system.  Most DTS measures temperatures with a precision of a few degrees, more than sufficient for leak detection.

For instance, a modern leading distributed temperature sensing technology allows measuring temperatures at a distance of 6 km, totaling 6000 points of measurement. The fiber optic sensing system’s transceiver measures “temperatures for 6 km both upstream and downstream of its installation point, for a total coverage of 12 km per each transceiver.” It is possible to employ several transceivers with accompanying fiber optic cables to offer coverage for long pipelines, totaling hundreds or thousands of kilometers in distance.

DTS technology acts as a semi-automatic leak detection system, obtaining data information to enable operators to take action before automation and/or safety system activation. It should be mentioned that a semi-automatic system means that the leak detection occurs automatically, resulting in an alarm signal in a continuously staffed control room. 

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in temperature measurement systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorWhy DTS systems are beneficial to pipelines

FBG sensors that dissolve inside the body have been developed

on May 18, 2020

umberto-xbrMwBgYUHY-unsplashResearchers have been firstly created a fiber optic sensing system, known as a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), inside bio-soluble optical fibers. According to Science Daily, fiber optic technology can be used to monitor the condition of fractures and safely study sensitive organs, such as the brain.

Fiber Bragg gratings that reflect the light of a particular wave are often applied in optical fibers used as distributed sensors. For example, such fibers are employed to monitor bridges in real-time or to track the integrity of aircraft wings. However, they have not yet been used in medicine. The new fiber technology will overcome these limitations by using optical fibers that break down in the body.

Firstly, researchers from Greece and Italy have created biodegradable glass for FBGs. They used phosphorus oxide in combination with oxides of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and silicon to perform this. The resulting optical glass combines excellent optical properties with water solubility and compatibility with living organisms, and its properties can be changed by adjusting the chemical composition.

Then the fiber Bragg gratings made from biodegradable glass were placed in conditions that are similar to the human body. As the experiment demonstrated, the created structures dissolve without a trace in such an environment, which opens the way for their medical application. Such FBG sensors are considered to be safe for the body and will not need to be removed after their use.

Possible examples of using optical fiber with FBGs include creating fiber optic sensors to assess joint pressure and monitor the heart and other sensitive organs. This optical fiber can also improve laser techniques for removing tumors by simultaneously conducting a laser beam and measuring temperature, necessary for the laser ablation process. Nevertheless, its safety and effectiveness will be tested on laboratory animals before developing medical applications of FBG technology.

Thus, a group of engineers from the University of Connecticut has created a biocompatible pressure sensor that will help doctors monitor chronic lung diseases, brain tumors, and other medical conditions, and then dissolve into the human body without a trace. Such a FBG sensor should replace existing implanted pressure sensors that are made up of potentially toxic substances and require removal after use.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorFBG sensors that dissolve inside the body have been developed

FBG multicore fibers are used as medical tools

on April 27, 2020

vivid-3079201_640It is highly essential to have accurate spatial information of a medical device inside the patient for proper manipulation of the instrument. The thing is that a wide range of clinical applications requires spatial information. Nevertheless, each technique has its disadvantages, the promising solution is the application of fiber optic sensors in the catheter for its spatial information.

Fiber sensors are applied in various medical devices such as endoscopes and catheters. Such features as compact size, flexibility, lightweight, immunity to electromagnetic interference and compatibility with medical imaging modalities make fiber optic sensors ideal for the medical environment. Therefore, FBG sensors are used in different studies to offer feedback from medical tools, they allow monitoring muscle fatigue, cardiac activities, and body temperature.

Moreover, the application of fiber optic sensors also includes cardiovascular diagnosis, artery pressure detection, artery detection, intra-aortic balloon pumping, prostatic implants, and urology. For instance, FBG sensors are employed as force sensors to determine the interface between various tissues in order to help in precisely installing a catheter in the epidural space. 

Additionally, sensors based on FBG multicore fibers are used in numerous different shape sensing applications. “They have been used for 3D shape recognition of solid objects, shape recognition of flexible morphine wing, and curvature detection of a continuum manipulator.” Nowadays the studies describe the application of FBG sensors in single-core optical fiber but there are also FBG multicore fibers.

To be more precise, FBG multicore fibers can work as a curvature sensor and 3D shape sensors. Although their cost is higher than in single-core optical fibers, the cross-sectional area of the shape sensor with FBG multicore fibers is smaller than the shape sensor with single-core fibers. Herewith, certain devices require the use of FBG multicore fibers because of the limited space. Also, the cores of multicore optical fibers are mechanically coupled, and the relative distance between the cores remains constant, while they experience identical temperature. Such features of FBG multicore fibers make them more beneficial than single-core optical fibers.

Finally, fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) written on multicore optical fibers are applied as shape sensors for flexible devices. Several FBG multicore fibers have been uniquely tested as a shape sensor for a catheter. More particularly, 4 multicore optical fibers are applied despite a single multicore fiber with 3 or more cores that have FBG sensors is enough for reconstructing the shape of a flexible device. Several multicore optical fibers expand the reliability of the sensing system against individual FBG sensor failure.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorFBG multicore fibers are used as medical tools

DTS performs dam monitoring

on April 13, 2020

dam-929406_640Dams applied for hydropower, irrigation or mining play a crucial role in human life, herewith, they evoke significant human, economic, and environmental consequences when they fail. Nevertheless, distributed fiber optic sensing increases dam safety by offering early alerts of potential problems.

To be more precise, modern distributed sensing systems are considered to have high accuracy for monitoring promoting a continuous understanding of dam conditions, taking dam safety to a higher level. For instance,  distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology) uses high spatial resolution temperature data from distributed temperature sensors to record tiny seepage flow changes and to estimate seepage rates in a dam structure. 

It should be noted that seepage happens in most embankment and earth dams as the impounded water looks for the path of least resistance through the dam and its foundations. Therefore, excessive seepage presents a threat while high-tech sensing systems enable to detect and analyze subsurface processes and prevent erosion. Distributed fiber optic sensing is a promising technology that can be employed to control critical geophysical parameters, for instance, temperature and strain with a sub-meter resolution over several km. 

Additionally, distributed sensing systems provide the benefits of cost-effective high spatial monitoring coverage. The thing is that optical fiber acts as the sensing system along the full length of the fiber optic cable allowing operators to obtain detailed data information along the entire dam. Distributed temperature sensors can catch tiny, localized changes in the seepage flow rates that would otherwise remain unnoticed. “They deliver temperature readings with the accuracy of point sensors with the indisputable benefit of fiber optics: the highest possible spatial coverage. ”

Moreover, the distributed temperature sensing does not need specialized optical fibers resulting in relatively low-cost installation. The thing is that measurements based on DTS systems provide data along the entire dam with high spatial resolution and high-temperature precision. Herewith, distributed temperature sensors have already been used in tailings dams. One of the main elements of the increasing number of permanent tools is the ever-increasing performance of the DTS systems. Modern fiber optic sensing systems achieve the world’s most accurate measurements, with sampling resolutions of 12cm (over 5km) and with temperature resolution as low as 0.01 C.  

Finally, seepage detection used distributed temperature sensing is regarded as a crucial technology and has prominently improved the monitoring capabilities of dam operators. The application of optical fiber networks provides additional benefits like the ability of distributed sensing systems develops further.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in temperature measurement systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorDTS performs dam monitoring

Fiber Bragg gratings in bogie frame

on April 6, 2020

wheelThe application of fiber optic technology as temperature and strain gauges is quite surprising in bogie frames. To be more precise, these fiber optic sensors are applied for examining the carbon fiber bogie, in addition to standard surface-mounted electrical-resistance fiber optic strain gauges.

Optical fibers of 125 micrometers in diameter or 250 micrometers with a coating layer are perfect for this aim. The thing is that the optical fiber is improved to produce fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in the fiber, efficiently producing a number of semi-reflective mirrors over short but equal intervals.

The operating principle of the FBG system is based on the reflection of the signal (a small amount of the signal at each semi-reflective mirror) when the light is transmitted through a fiber Bragg grating. Herewith, “the originally reflected wavelengths (without the influence of strain) from each Bragg grating are compared to the reflected wavelengths when the structure is loaded.”

It should be noted that in the case of FBG deformation by strain, the spacing between the semi-reflective mirrors is either enlarged (tension) or decreased (compression). Therefore, the change combined with the efficient refractive index and the period of the fiber Bragg gratings leads to a shift in the reflected central Bragg wavelength.

The thing is that the wavelength size demonstrates the strain magnitude. Nevertheless, there is the same effect happened with temperature change, while the temperature effect is over 10 times the strain effect that is why the fiber optic technology needs to correct for temperature.

The researchers present the techniques applied to compensate for temperature where the fiber Bragg grating is placed close to the end-face of a cleaved optical fiber. The fact is the optical fiber with FBG is put in a capillary tube where one end is fused to the fiber, well away from the grating, and the opposite end is sealed. Finally, the FBG system responds only to temperature.

Nonetheless, it is not enough only to install several strain gauges into the bogie and link them to the instrumentation either. Ir is required to choose the proper fiber, for instance, bend-insensitive optical fibers are suitable. These are optical fibers where the diameter of the core includes 9.5-micrometer fibers with 4.5 mm long fiber Bragg gratings.

Additionally, it is necessary to properly install FBG systems to the bogie so as to act as a homogeneous part of the structure. Fiber Bragg gratings provide such benefits as efficient strain gauge transfer, capable to accommodate localized variations in the surface topology of the composite.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorFiber Bragg gratings in bogie frame

Distributed temperature sensors promote warning systems

on March 30, 2020

smart-3871774_1280Temperature is a key safety indicator in any industry. The technology of distributed temperature sensors using optical fiber allows measuring the temperature at any point in the fiber, with an interval of 1 meter, resulting in the detailed temperature dependence of all required areas. The data obtained by this technique makes it possible to develop intelligent warning systems based on it, therefore, replacing outdated point-based monitoring systems.

The optical fiber itself acts like a fiber optic sensor, and the distributed nature of the DTS technology enables us to determine the temperature change at an arbitrary point, spreading many kilometers from it. Moreover, the measurement quality is not affected by electromagnetic radiation, thus, the distributed temperature technology is free from false alarms.

To be more precise, distributed temperature sensors (DTS) allow measuring the characteristics of an object along a fiber optic cable, while the fiber cable is a linear sensor, which is a continuously distributed sensing element throughout its entire length.

The operating principle is based on the reflectivity of stimulated Raman scattering of light (Raman effect). A semiconductor laser is also used to determine the location of temperature changes in a fiber optic cable. The fact is that the structure of the optical fiber changes when the temperature changes. 

When laser beam light from the laser system enters the area of temperature change, it interacts with the changed structure of the optical fiber and in addition to direct light scattering, reflected light appears.

The main advantages of fiber optic sensors in comparison with classical analogs are the following:

  • Compact size;
  • Very fast response to parameter changes in the environment;
  • Low weight;
  • Multiple parameters can be registered simultaneously by a single distributed sensor;
  • Reliability;
  • Very wide operating temperature range of DTS;
  • Small price per unit length of the sensing system;
  • High sensitivity;
  • Long operating time;
  • The high spatial resolution of temperature sensors;
  • Resistance to chemicals and aggressive environments;
  • DTS is not affected by electromagnetic disturbances;
  • The sensitive part of the fiber sensor does not require connection to power lines.

The processing unit measures the propagation speed and power of both direct and reflected light and determines where the temperature changes. For instance, at a wavelength of 1550 nm, a pulsed generation mode is used with a laser power limit of 10 mW.

There are several types of optical fibers, each of which meets certain requirements for its properties, depending on the application due to the fact that the properties of the optical fiber can be varied over a wide range. 

Physical effects on the optical fiber, such as pressure, deformation, temperature change, affect the properties of the fiber at the point of exposure and it is possible to measure the environmental parameters by measuring the change in the properties of the fiber at a given point.

In general, a fiber optic sensor consists of two concentric layers: fiber core and optical coating. The fiber optic light guide part can be protected by a layer of acrylate, plastic, reinforced sheath, etc., depending on the application of this fiber cable.

Thus, distributed fiber optic sensors are perfect for industries related to combustible and explosive materials, such as coal, oil and gas production, etc. for use in fire alarm systems of various structures.

alarm-3410065_640Application of distributed temperature sensors includes:

  • fire alarm systems in the road, rail or service tunnels;
  • thermal monitoring of power cables and overhead transmission lines to optimize production processes;
  • improving the efficiency of oil and gas wells;
  • ensuring the safe working condition of industrial induction melting furnaces;
  • monitoring the tightness of containers with liquefied natural gas on ships in unloading terminals;
  • detection of leaks in dams;
  • temperature control in chemical processes;
  • leak detection in pipelines.

In addition, DTS systems combined with other tools open completely new areas of application. For example, it is possible to design a specialized device – a fire detector based on a distributed fiber optic temperature sensor.

Detecting a fire in an industrial environment is not an easy task because of the large number of disturbing factors, many of which can be considered by detectors as carriers of fire signs. In addition, dust deposited on the DTS‘ sensitive elements makes it difficult to operate and it can disable them.

It is also necessary to take into account the possible smoldering of the deposited dust, which can also lead to false alarms. The presence of fumes and aerosols makes it impossible to operate smoke optical-electronic fire detectors. The presence of carbon monoxide will trigger gas fire detectors.

Industrial facilities and production are characterized by large volumes of premises, high ceilings, the presence of long tunnels, collectors, mines, inaccessible areas and premises with a complex configuration and geometry. And in these conditions, it is certainly possible to protect using traditional fire alarm systems, but this involves the use of a large number of detectors, and therefore they have high costs, including installation and maintenance of alarm systems and automation.

It is difficult to select detectors for explosive zones, especially for use in underground operations and mines. Aggressive media are often present in chemical industries. There are also objects of sea and river transport, characterized by the aggressive salt fog.

The use of non-electric sensing devices, the use of fiber optic cable allows the DTS to be applied in enterprises of the oil and gas complex, mines, underground operations, chemical industries (including those with aggressive environments), and metallurgy and energy enterprises.

As for oil companies, the active development of high-viscosity oil fields, which imposes strict requirements on the production equipment, and the severe depletion of most oil and gas fields require mining organizations to conduct prospecting and exploration operations, change production technologies and control the technical condition of wells.

The main task for mining companies to increase the well’s production capacity in real-time is to track information about the processes occurring in wells and fields. Solutions based on standard temperature sensors suggest well logging using point measuring instruments, which leads to the inaccuracy of the data obtained. 

The disadvantages of such sensing devices include the inability to fix the distribution of one of the most important parameters of the well – the temperature profile in real-time, as well as the need for power supply, the impact on the measurement results of external electromagnetic fields, labor and time costs required for the departure of the team and performing various operations, including the immersion of the fiber sensor element and its movement along the well, data processing, etc.

The fiber optic sensing system consists of distributed temperature sensors designed to measure temperature along the borehole, and point-to-point fiber pressure sensor. Optical fibers of a distributed temperature sensing system and pressure sensors can be structurally installed in a single fiber cable.

The fiber optic cable is resistant to mechanical damage. Additional fiber optic cable protection is not required during descent and lifting operations, but the protection of the fiber cable from mechanical damage during descent and lifting operations can be provided by the use of protective coatings.

If you want to obtain a highly efficient distributed temperature sensing system, you should choose the Optromix company. Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) products line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) systems, distributed temperature sensing (DTS) systems. 

Distributed temperature system provides continuous underground power lines monitoring of temperatures, detecting hot spots, delivering operational status, condition assessment, and power circuit rating data. This helps operators to optimize the transmission and distribution networks, and reduce the cost of operation and capital.

Usually, the DTS systems can detect the temperature to a spatial resolution of 1 m with precision to within ±1°C at a resolution of 0.01°C. Measurement distances of greater than 30 km can be monitored and some specialized systems can provide even tighter spatial resolutions.
The advantages of working with Optromix:

  • Our DTS system has the superior quality, however, its price is one of the lowest in the market;
  • Optromix is ready to develop DTS systems based on customer’s specifications.

If you are interested in DTS systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorDistributed temperature sensors promote warning systems

New concept of distributed fiber optic sensors

on March 23, 2020

illuminatedFiber optic technology promotes a new era of the Internet because optical fibers transmit huge amounts of data information all around the world. Herewith, fibers are regarded as an excellent platform for fiber optic sensors. It is possible to spread fiber sensors over hundreds of kilometers, simply install within structures, and even in a severe environment where the application of electricity is forbidden. Nevertheless,  optical fiber sensors have some inevitable problems as well.

The operating principle of an optical measurement is based on the light that touches the medium under test but conventional optical fibers are developed to perform the exact opposite. To be more precise, the design of optical fibers includes a glass cladding, with a much thinner, inner core. Herewith, the light is sent at the inner core, and every effort is made to keep light from leaking outside. “A substance under test, in most cases, lies outside the much larger cladding. Unfortunately, guided light does not touch upon much of the outside world.”

The only solution to the problem is coupling to the cladding modes that need for the inscription of permanent, periodic perturbations in the optical fiber medium (fiber Bragg gratings). FBGs are written at specific, discrete locations. Fiber optic sensor has limits to point-measurements only because their erasement or movement are prohibited. Optical fiber sensors are perfect in spatially-distributed analysis, in which every fiber optic segment operates as an independent measurement node. Additionally, it is possible to use two strong optical waves into the optical fiber instead as an alternative to the fiber Bragg gratings.

Also, there are Brillouin dynamic gratings, which can be switched on and off at will compared to standard FBGs. It is possible to short segments of arbitrary locations, and scan along the optical fiber. The thing is that the developed distributed fiber optic sensor is considered to be a first of its kind. Researchers have overcome some challenges: they succeeded to demonstrate the accurate measurement of refractive index outside the cladding boundary of traditional, unmodified optical fiber resulting in an 8cm spatial resolution. Herewith, the analysis demonstrates proper identification of short fiber optic sections immersed in water and ethanol, and clearly distinguished between the two. 

The researchers claim that it is a new concept of distributed fiber optic sensors. Such fiber sensors allow overcoming a decades-long challenge: fiber optic sensors perform the distributed mapping of refractive index outside the cladding of conventional optical fiber, where light does not achieve. The applications of distributed fiber optic sensors include leak detection in critical infrastructure, and process monitoring in the petrochemical industry, desalination plants, food and beverage production and more.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorNew concept of distributed fiber optic sensors

FBG sensors prevent tunnel fire

on March 16, 2020

railway-tunnel-4427611_640Tunnel fires are not regarded as usual, however, they also can perform great damage to lives and properties if they take place. The process of fire detection inside the lengthy and curved tunnel is challenging. Nevertheless, fiber optic sensors based on fiber Bragg grating or FBG technology allows detecting tunnel fires and FBG sensors are considered to be a novel methodology that determines not only the presence but also locates the fire inside the tunnel.

To be more precise, FBG sensors are installed across the inner sides of the tunnel where they control it by the optical spectrum analyzer or wavelength division multiplexing sensor interrogator at the exit. “The change in the center wavelength from the original spectrum at the output denotes the temperature change (fire occurrence) inside the tunnel.” FBG fiber optic sensors offer output with more precision, herewith, fiber Bragg gratings can hold very high-temperature values.

It should be noted that it is possible to detect fires applying various ways, for instance, installing temperature sensors inside the tunnel or controlling the tunnel through the camera. Temperature sensors enable to sense of tunnel fires but their location presents difficulties. Moreover, such a temperature sensor as a thermistor can not stand very high temperatures (1000˚C) as well as there is a problem of self-healing.

FBG sensors, in their turn, provide a highly efficient process of sensing and locating. The thing is that fiber Bragg gratings in fiber optic sensors lead to a narrow range of wavelengths to shift and the rest of it to transmit through it. The center of the reflected wavelength is Bragg’s Wavelength. The features of FBG sensors allow measuring temperature or strain changes in the structures. Additionally, FBG fiber optic sensors have a greater temperature steadiness ability, more immune to electromagnetic interferences, longer lifetime, explosion safe and it is possible to be multiplexed.

Fiber Bragg grating is a short part of optical fibers that reflects a specific light wavelength and transmits all other wavelengths. FBGs operate as an optical notch filter. The operating principle is based on the Bragg grating patterns inside the fiber that perform the reflection. The design of fiber Bragg gratings includes holographic interference or a phase mask to undergo a short length of optical fiber to a periodic distribution of light intensity. 

The developed FBG sensors have been already tested and demonstrated the following results: the sensitivity value of the fiber optic sensor achieves 20 pm/˚C. Also, it is possible to increase the accuracy of fire location inside the tunnel by increasing the number of FBG fiber optic sensors for the considered tunnel length of 4 km. Thus, FBG technology can help to perform operations very fast and can save many lives and properties.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorFBG sensors prevent tunnel fire

Totally new application of DAS systems

on March 2, 2020

date-palm-223250_640The red palm weevil is regarded as a serious problem for the cultivation of date palms leading to massive economic losses worldwide. Although curative techniques are not challenging, early detection is still difficult to be performed. Fiber optic technology allows overcoming the threat and offers reliable detection of RPW by a distributed acoustic sensor (DAS).

Modern DAS systems enable to detect feeding sound created by larvae as young as 12 days, in an infected tree. Compared to traditional methods, the DAS technique provides a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative that can perform 24-7, real-time monitoring of 1,000 palm trees or even more. Moreover, distributed sensors allow controlling temperature, a crucial characteristic to monitor farm fires, one more important problem for the cultivation of palm trees around the world.

Nowadays there are various techniques to detect the weevils. For example, it is possible to use trained dogs to smell the odor, however, such sensing is not precise and has low efficiency. That is why distributed acoustic sensors are considered to be the most promising early detection techniques. Current sensing technologies use sound probes to install them right into the tree trunk but such acoustic sensors damage plants and create a nest for other insects.

The novel distributed acoustic sensor combined with a signal processing algorithm offer a reliable solution for the early detection of red palm weevils. The design of the DAS system is based on the use of the laser and photodetector installed within a single unit, while only the optical fiber is wound around the palm trees to create an optical network. The developed DAS technique has been already tested on two palm trees (one healthy and one infested with ~12 days old larvae.).

The thing is that the novel distributed acoustic sensors are “uniquely non-invasive, providing 24-7 monitoring, at relatively low cost, and offering wide coverage of the farming area, using only a single fiber optic cable.”

To be more precise, all the optical/electronic components applied to design acoustic sensors are put into a sensing unit, which is linked to an optical fiber that is extended throughout the palm-trees farm. Herewith, the fiber circles each tree trunk, from the ground up to a ~1 m height because the probability of RPW is extremely high there. Also, the fiber optic cable between trees can be either put on the ground buried in the soil providing real-time monitoring that promotes precise identification of locations of the infected and healthy trees.

The design of DAS systems includes the use of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) that has numerous potential applications in the oil and gas industries as well as for real-time structural health monitoring. The operating principle of distributed acoustic sensors is based on “launching a train of optical pulses generated by a narrow linewidth laser into a single-mode fiber.”

Optromix is a DAS system manufacturer that provides top of the line distributed acoustic sensing systems suitable for monitoring of commerce networks. If you have any questions or would like to buy a DAS system, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorTotally new application of DAS systems

The noise of Distributed Acoustic Sensing is suppressed

on February 17, 2020

ear-2972890_640A technique of noise suppression used f-x deconvolution and the wavelet transform allows reducing jump edges in the phase noise of distributed acoustic sensing. The DAS system has been already tested and demonstrated great results of high performance in terms of increasing the quality level of seismic waves. Distributed acoustic sensing provides relatively stable phase sensitivity as well as better the signal-to-noise ratio, leading to more remarkable features of seismic wave signals.

To be more precise, distributed fiber optic sensing based on Rayleigh scattering is not new and used in various applications to control current assets and employ new resources. It is possible to apply such DAS systems to provide efficient and comparatively inexpensive development of perimeter security systems and produce defensive redundancy.

Different methods have been used to apply Rayleigh scattering in the development of distributed fiber optic sensors. For instance, a distributed sensing technology of optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) was used for the first time over three decades ago. Nowadays a noise suppression technique based on f-x deconvolution and the wavelet transform is considered to be the most efficient for distributed acoustic sensors.

The thing is that f-x deconvolution is regarded as a traditional technique of seismic data processing. The application includes the treatment of seismic signals by fiber optic sensors as a two-dimensional (2D) image in terms of time and channel. The DAS system enables us to extract the signal characteristics of each channel with a comparatively stable noise distribution between channels. 

Usually, such techniques as deconvolution or the wavelet transform are applied separately in traditional seismic noise processing but here these techniques are combined in distributed sensing technology to minimize the number of wavelet transform layers and reach effective low-frequency noise suppression. The DAS system offers such benefits as comparatively stable phase sensitivity over the whole sensing range, the reduction of jump edges in phase noise, and more evident features of seismic wave signals.

The operating principle of distributed acoustic sensing used f-x deconvolution is based on “the assumption that desired signals are continuous and predictable whereas random noise is incoherent and unpredictable.” DAS sensors are actively used for oil and gas exploration. Thus, the noise compression technique improves the phase noise performance of the DAS system. Moreover, the jump edges from the noise of fiber optic sensors are reduced with the same peaks and valleys compared to the original signals which play a crucial role in calculating the time delay of peaks and valleys between various channels. 

Optromix is a DAS system manufacturer that provides top of the line distributed acoustic sensing systems suitable for monitoring of commerce networks. If you have any questions or would like to buy a DAS system, please contact us at info@optromix.com

read more
editorThe noise of Distributed Acoustic Sensing is suppressed