FBG Sensors for power plants

FBG Sensors for power plantsNowadays researchers tend to use fusion as a safe energy source at power plants. Nevertheless, this process is dangerous. It requires reliable fiber optic technology for structural health monitoring at power plants. Novel fiber optic sensors offer robust operation in the harsh conditions of a commercial fusion power plant.

To be more precise, these fiber sensors provide temperature sensing applying optical fibers with written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The FBG operating principle is based on broadband light that is directed on it. Although most of the light goes through, one wavelength is reflected. Herewith, the reflected wavelength changes with both temperature and strain.

Therefore, the installation of several fiber Bragg gratings enables performing independent temperature sensing of each location. Standard FBGs are widely used in various industries for strain and temperature sensing. Herewith, compact superconducting cables use these optical fibers based on fiber optic technology.

Novel FBG sensors can maintain “the intense electrical, mechanical, and electromagnetic stresses of a fusion magnet’s environment.” The novel fiber optic technology supposes ultra-long fiber Bragg gratings of 9-millimeter located 1 mm apart. The FBG sensors operate as conventional long quasi-continuous systems.

Compared to standard systems, FBG sensors include such benefits as long grating length (meters instead of millimeters). Ultra-long FBGs allow for sensing simultaneously occurring temperature changes along their entire length. Thus, it is possible to determine fastly temperature variation, irrespective of the location of the heat source.

Additionally, it is possible to combine ultra-long FBGs and traditional FBGs to produce both spatial and temporal resolution. The fiber optic technology has been developed by a team of researchers from Switzerland. According to them, such a combination can be used on bigger cables.

These FBG sensors detect quickly and accurately even the smallest temperature changes under realistic operation conditions. Moreover, they demonstrate a better signal-to-noise ratio thanks to their high level of sensitivity and the opportunity to adjust the optical fiber response.

Thus, the fiber optic sensors locate quench events tens of seconds faster than voltage taps. Herewith, the application of FBG sensors for HTS magnets quenches detection is very potential. It allows for overcoming the current problem of  HTS coils from damage during quenches.

Finally, such a fiber optic technology plays a crucial role in compact fusion processes, where practical, high-field, high-temperature superconducting magnets are important. FBG sensors are still under development and need some improvements to be used in new applications.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors for temperature and pressure measurement

FBG sensors for temperature and pressureNowadays fiber optic solutions play a crucial role in information technology. Fiber optic technology promotes the development of advanced fiber optic sensors. These fiber sensors offer numerous benefits that make them very attractive. The benefits include “durability, flexibility, biocompatibility, high sensitivity, and electromagnetic interference immunity.”

The applications of fiber optic sensors consist of numerous fields. They are widely used in medicine, environmental protection, industrial production, and structural health monitoring. Herewith, different types of fiber sensors allow for measuring various physical and chemical parameters. For instance, they sense temperature, acoustic, pressure, humidity, and others.

The production of distributed sensing systems requires different types of fibers. The following types are the most popular: photonic crystal, polarization-maintaining, double-core, sapphire optical fibers, etc. It should be noted that various fiber optic sensors use various measurement principles. Additionally, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) – the most popular measurement principle.

FBG sensors can also perform multi-parameter measurements to meet the practical demands of scientists. Thus, a team of researchers has demonstrated a cascaded multi-mode FBG sensor that performs the dual-parameter measurement. They apply optical fiber with several modes to create a distributed sensing system. Moreover, the FBG sensors measure the Brillouin frequency shift for temperature and strain sensing.

To be more precise, these FBG sensors have a hybrid structure (FBGs and FPI) with a nano-silica diaphragm on the tip. Besides, the total length of the fiber sensor is less than a human hair. These FBG sensors determine both environmental temperature and pressure. Therefore, such a fiber optic solution is highly promising in specific applications in severe environments.

Finally, the hybrid fiber optic sensor has been already produced and even tested. The distributed sensing system includes an FPI with a silica diaphragm. Also, fiber optic technology applies the femtosecond laser inscription technique and arc discharge methods. These FBG sensors demonstrate a high level of pressure and temperature sensitivity.

Additionally, the fiber optic sensor has an ultra-low level of cross sensitivities. “The temperature-induced error of the pressure measurement was –1.4286 kPa/ and ℃ pressure-induced error of the temperature measurement was ~0℃/MPa.” The mentioned-above benefits of FBG sensors make them perfect for numerous fields of applications.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber optic sensors for ammonia detection

FBG sensors for ammonia detectionA team of scientists from Denmark in a collaboration with chemical engineers has presented novel accurate fiber optic sensors. They allow for significantly decreasing the level of air pollution. The operating principle of this fiber sensor is based on modern telecom technology. It helps to detect and measure ammonia in the atmosphere by the sensing system, a laser, and hollow-core optical fibers.

To be more precise, the fiber optic system provides continuous ammonia monitoring for agricultural application. Additionally, the fiber optic sensor can be created at a pretty low cost. The benefits of fiber sensors such as compact size, high reliability, and low cost meet the requirements of a portable system for detecting ammonia.

It should be noted that such a fiber optic technology is still under development. The thing is that the sensitivity of the fiber sensor requires improvements, which scientists try to perform. Even though the main purpose of the new sensing system is ammonia detection, it is possible to use fiber optic sensors for the detection of other gases, for instance, greenhouse gases. 

Moreover, fiber optic technology operates as a part of one agricultural project. In this project, scientists develop new techniques and technology to measure and reduce air pollution from the agricultural sector. Nowadays the agricultural sector is considered to be the main contributor to air pollution (mainly caused by ammonia). Therefore, agricultural pollution is the biggest environmental issue that requires efficient fiber sensors.

The thing is that now ammonia emissions are challenging to measure at the farm level. Compared to novel fiber optic sensors, traditional systems for ammonia detection have a high cost. Fiber optic technology is very promising with great prospects for agriculture. “The ability to continuously and cost-effectively track the development in ammonia emissions from agriculture offers completely new opportunities for the industry to experiment on decreasing the emissions.”

Scientists claim that there are already established figures considering air pollution from agriculture. Nevertheless, the future potential of fiber optic sensors may greatly transform the detection way of ammonia caused by agricultural farms. The new fiber optic technology promotes farmers to control their emissions continuously.

Finally, precise monitoring of ammonia emissions provided by sensing systems makes streamline operations far better. Thus, fiber sensors lead to emissions-based regulations that help reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. The development of these fiber optic sensors will continue until the next year.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber optic sensors for metal ions detection

FBG sensor for metal detectionFluorescent fiber optic sensors find their popularity in online and in-situ detection of metal ions. These fiber sensors allow for predicting and preventing the environmental problems caused by the ions. To be more precise, this type of sensor is different from refractometer-based ones. The fluorescent fiber optic sensors have a simple structure and their properties play a crucial role in sensing performance.

It should be noted that metal ions cause heavy metal pollution resulting in significant harm to the environment and people. Nowadays metal pollution is regarded as a serious worldwide problem. Therefore, the problem requires quick and effective sensing systems to determine the level of metal ions pollution. The use of fiber optic sensors is a perfect solution.

Some researchers propose the use of fluorescent materials in the new fiber sensors. They claim that fluorescent optical fibers enable them to transmit valuable data for real-time sensing process. Additionally, these fiber optic sensors offer such advantages as long-life span and immunity to electromagnetic interference. The is the main reason why fluorescence sensing systems are ideal in field and emergency analysis.

The design of the fluorescent fiber sensors includes “an excitation light source, an optical fiber with the sensor probe, a spectrometer, and a computer.” The operating principle is based on the excitation light that expands along the fiber and the fiber optic sensor to obtain a fluorescent response back. Moreover, the researchers confirm that some biomaterials can collect heavy metal ions.

Thus, it is possible to apply their derivatives as fluorescent sensing systems. Recently researchers have created several fiber sensors based on fluorescent materials to detect metal ions that include the following:

  • Protein labeled sensing systems

It is not a novel type of fiber optic sensor, it has appeared almost 20 years ago. Protein labeled sensors do not depend on the fluorescent membrane and only transmit the light.

  • Nucleic acid-based fiber sensors

These sensors provide a high level of sensitivity and specificity. Also, nucleic acid-based sensing systems are very promising for on-site environmental monitoring. 

  • Luminescent nanomaterials-based fiber optic sensors

Even though they have more benefits than other types, these sensors demonstrate high selectivity at a minority of metal ions.

Finally, the mentioned above fiber optic solutions are very potential for the detection of metal ions, for example, in environmental water samples. Nevertheless, the sensing system is not ideal and has some problems to be overcome. 

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Dynamic gratings produce new fiber optic sensors

FBG sensors with dynamic gratingsResearchers have presented dynamic gratings used instead of depending on fixed-position fiber Bragg gratings, and now core-launched laser beam light can unite to the cladding modes of conventional optical fiber resulting in distributed fiber sensing of the external environment.

The thing is that fiber optic sensors allow distinguishing between chemicals and liquids external to the optical fiber, herewith, they are usually based on refractive-index changes in the cladding modes of the fiber. Moreover, fixed-position fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied to excite these cladding modes and unite laser beam light from the core mode.

Nevertheless, FBG sensors need specific equipment to create the gratings at the optical fiber, also they only work as point sensors at specific, predetermined locations. A team of researchers from Israel tries to overcome these challenges by developing dynamic gratings at reconfigurable short sections along with the optical fiber.

Thus, the new gratings are independent of any permanent change in the fiber structure. It is possible to switch them on and off at will, and fiber optic sensors based on dynamic gratings allow scanning along with the optical fiber. According to researchers, after the installation of a grating, its effect is not restricted only to light in the core mode.

Similar to conventional FBGs, the dynamic gratings also unite laser beam light between core and cladding modes. Herewith, in analogy to fiber Bragg gratings, such connection will occur for the light at very specific frequencies. “An optical probe wave of tunable frequency is launched at the dynamic grating, and the exact frequency in which coupling takes place is carefully noted.”

Compared to FBGs, dynamic gratings enable the researchers to carry out tests in any chosen position. It should be noted that the developed fiber optic sensors have been already tested over 2 m of traditional optical fiber. To be more precise, fiber sensors consisted of  8 cm length dynamic gratings perform scanning along with the optical fiber resulting in the combination of spectra between core and cladding modes in each position.

Measurements accurately detect the parts of optical fiber that were immersed in ethanol and water, herewith, the fiber sensors can distinguish between the two with an 8 cm resolution. At the same time, the refractive index outside the fiber is possible to estimate precisely with fourth-decimal-point accuracy (0.0004).

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

What you should know about fiber Bragg gratings

fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs)Fiber Bragg gratings are currently widely used in optical fibers and light guides for compaction of channels along the wavelength, optical filtering of signals, as resonator mirrors in fiber and semiconductor laser systems, as smoothing filters in optical amplifiers, to compensate for dispersion in the main communication channels.

Another field of application of FBG technology includes its use in various measuring systems that control environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, deformation, and chemical content. Bragg gratings distributed along the length of the light guides allow for creating distributed acoustic systems that differ favorably from traditional complexes of the same purpose in cost and technology of production.

FBG technology for recording Bragg gratings distributed in a light guide is a key element in creating a new generation of measurement systems. Hydroacoustic antennas developed on the basis of such optical fibers, as well as systems for the protection of extended objects and systems for monitoring the condition of main pipelines, are increasingly being used abroad. 

A distinctive feature of these fiber optic systems is the large extent of controlled zones, speed, and unique information capabilities. When fiber Bragg gratings are written at a standard optical fiber, a problem arises because of the fact that such a fiber has weak photosensitivity and a low saturation threshold, which is not sufficient for effective recording of gratings. 

The main solution method of FBGs is to increase the concentration of germanium dioxide in the core. Other methods consist of alloying the pieces for the creating of optical fibers with such chemical elements as boron, tin, nitrogen, phosphorus, antimony together with germanium, which leads to an increase in the photorefractive power of the light guides.

Writing of fiber Bragg gratings can be classified by the type of laser system used for production, the wavelength of beam emission, the recording technique, the irradiated material, and the type of Bragg grating. Lasers used for FBG writing can be either continuous or pulsed, with a wavelength of emission from the infrared (IR) to the ultraviolet (UV) range of the spectrum. 

These differences determine the spatial and temporal coherence of the optical emission sources used for writing, which, in turn, determines the choice of the appropriate method for recording fiber Bragg gratings. The main methods for FBG writing include the step-by-step method, the phase mask method, and the interferometric method.

The need to increase the speed of information transmission, associated with the development of telecommunications, increasing information flows, the growth of global information systems and databases, the expansion of the number of users, led to the fact that fiber optic system communication lines were developed using spectral multiplexing of optical channels.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Multi-addressed fiber Bragg gratings for microwave sensors

multi-adressed FBGsNowadays fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)  face several challenges in fiber optic sensor systems because of their complex installation and the high cost of interrogators provided by interrogation methods and FBG multiplexing. The thing is that such features as wavelength, time, frequency, polarizing, and spatial division multiplexing necessary for most applications also need complex tools, for instance, spectrum analyzers, spectrometers with tunable interferometers, Bragg gratings, etc.

It should be noted that one more challenge for FBG sensors include “the fact that these sensors are not addressable per se, and therefore, any spectrum overlapping leads to interrogation errors.” The possible way to overcome the problem is to use the addressed fiber Bragg gratings combined with the microwave photonics interrogation technique. The addressed FBG is considered to be a specific type of fiber Bragg gratings with two narrow notches in the reflection spectrum.

The operating principle is based on the light that passes through the FBG that has two narrow optical frequencies, herein, the difference between them is less than an optical frequency and installed in the microwave range. Such an addressed frequency does not depend on stress or temperature fields, it is also independent of fiber Bragg grating’s central frequency shifting.

The addressed FBG sensors act both as a two-frequency source and as a fiber optic sensor of the measurement system simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to develop a microwave-photonic fiber optic sensor system based on arrays of the addressed fiber Bragg gratings, if the set of address frequencies in the array is regarded as orthogonal. The addressed FBGs, in their turn, allow designing multi-addressed fiber Bragg grating structures.

The thing is that multi-addressed FBGs apply three (or more) frequency carriers, while their beatings on a photodetector create three (or more) address frequencies. The combination of address frequencies enables increasing the fiber optic sensor capacity of the measurement system as well as increasing the precision of central wavelength determination. Therefore, the multi-addressed FBGs are regarded as a specific type of fiber Bragg gratings with three (or more) narrow notches in the reflection spectrum.

The operating principle of the multi-addressed FBGs is based ion the light with three (or more) narrow optical frequencies, and the difference between them is less than an optical frequency and is placed in the microwave range. Additionally, the address frequencies set in FBG sensors does not depend on strain or temperature fields, central frequency shifting as well. Finally, the multi-addressed fiber Bragg gratings are both a multi-frequency source and a fiber optic sensor of the measurement system at the same time leading to the appearance of new applications.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors that dissolve inside the body have been developed

FBG sensors inside bodyResearchers have been firstly created a fiber optic sensing system, known as a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), inside bio-soluble optical fibers. According to Science Daily, fiber optic technology can be used to monitor the condition of fractures and safely study sensitive organs, such as the brain.

Fiber Bragg gratings that reflect the light of a particular wave are often applied in optical fibers used as distributed sensors. For example, such fibers are employed to monitor bridges in real-time or to track the integrity of aircraft wings. However, they have not yet been used in medicine. The new fiber technology will overcome these limitations by using optical fibers that break down in the body.

Firstly, researchers from Greece and Italy have created biodegradable glass for FBGs. They used phosphorus oxide in combination with oxides of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and silicon to perform this. The resulting optical glass combines excellent optical properties with water solubility and compatibility with living organisms, and its properties can be changed by adjusting the chemical composition.

Then the fiber Bragg gratings made from biodegradable glass were placed in conditions that are similar to the human body. As the experiment demonstrated, the created structures dissolve without a trace in such an environment, which opens the way for their medical application. Such FBG sensors are considered to be safe for the body and will not need to be removed after their use.

Possible examples of using optical fiber with FBGs include creating fiber optic sensors to assess joint pressure and monitor the heart and other sensitive organs. This optical fiber can also improve laser techniques for removing tumors by simultaneously conducting a laser beam and measuring temperature, necessary for the laser ablation process. Nevertheless, its safety and effectiveness will be tested on laboratory animals before developing medical applications of FBG technology.

Thus, a group of engineers from the University of Connecticut has created a biocompatible pressure sensor that will help doctors monitor chronic lung diseases, brain tumors, and other medical conditions, and then dissolve into the human body without a trace. Such a FBG sensor should replace existing implanted pressure sensors that are made up of potentially toxic substances and require removal after use.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG multicore fibers are used as medical tools

FBG sensors in medicineIt is highly essential to have accurate spatial information of a medical device inside the patient for proper manipulation of the instrument. The thing is that a wide range of clinical applications requires spatial information. Nevertheless, each technique has its disadvantages, the promising solution is the application of fiber optic sensors in the catheter for its spatial information.

Fiber sensors are applied in various medical devices such as endoscopes and catheters. Such features as compact size, flexibility, lightweight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and compatibility with medical imaging modalities make fiber optic sensors ideal for the medical environment. Therefore, FBG sensors are used in different studies to offer feedback from medical tools, they allow monitoring of muscle fatigue, cardiac activities, and body temperature.

Moreover, the application of fiber optic sensors also includes cardiovascular diagnosis, artery pressure detection, artery detection, intra-aortic balloon pumping, prostatic implants, and urology. For instance, FBG sensors are employed as force sensors to determine the interface between various tissues in order to help in precisely installing a catheter in the epidural space. 

Additionally, sensors based on FBG multicore fibers are used in numerous different shape sensing applications. “They have been used for 3D shape recognition of solid objects, shape recognition of flexible morphine wing, and curvature detection of a continuum manipulator.” Nowadays the studies describe the application of FBG sensors in single-core optical fiber but there are also FBG multicore fibers.

To be more precise, FBG multicore fibers can work as a curvature sensor and 3D shape sensors. Although their cost is higher than in single-core optical fibers, the cross-sectional area of the shape sensor with FBG multicore fibers is smaller than the shape sensor with single-core fibers. Herewith, certain devices require the use of FBG multicore fibers because of the limited space. Also, the cores of multicore optical fibers are mechanically coupled, and the relative distance between the cores remains constant, while they experience identical temperature. Such features of FBG multicore fibers make them more beneficial than single-core optical fibers.

Finally, fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) written on multicore optical fibers are applied as shape sensors for flexible devices. Several FBG multicore fibers have been uniquely tested as a shape sensor for a catheter. More particularly, 4 multicore optical fibers are applied despite a single multicore fiber with 3 or more cores that have FBG sensors is enough for reconstructing the shape of a flexible device. Several multicore optical fibers expand the reliability of the sensing system against individual FBG sensor failure.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Bragg gratings in bogie frame

FBGs for bogie frameThe application of fiber optic technology as temperature and strain gauges is quite surprising in bogie frames. To be more precise, these fiber optic sensors are applied for examining the carbon fiber bogie, in addition to standard surface-mounted electrical-resistance fiber optic strain gauges.

Optical fibers of 125 micrometers in diameter or 250 micrometers with a coating layer are perfect for this aim. The thing is that the optical fiber is improved to produce fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in the fiber, efficiently producing a number of semi-reflective mirrors over short but equal intervals.

The operating principle of the FBG system is based on the reflection of the signal (a small amount of the signal at each semi-reflective mirror) when the light is transmitted through a fiber Bragg grating. Herewith, “the originally reflected wavelengths (without the influence of strain) from each Bragg grating are compared to the reflected wavelengths when the structure is loaded.”

It should be noted that in the case of FBG deformation by strain, the spacing between the semi-reflective mirrors is either enlarged (tension) or decreased (compression). Therefore, the change combined with the efficient refractive index and the period of the fiber Bragg gratings leads to a shift in the reflected central Bragg wavelength.

The thing is that the wavelength size demonstrates the strain magnitude. Nevertheless, there is the same effect that happened with temperature change, while the temperature effect is over 10 times the strain effect that is why the fiber optic technology needs to correct for temperature.

The researchers present the techniques applied to compensate for temperature where the fiber Bragg grating is placed close to the end-face of a cleaved optical fiber. The fact is the optical fiber with FBG is put in a capillary tube where one end is fused to the fiber, well away from the grating, and the opposite end is sealed. Finally, the FBG system responds only to temperature.

Nonetheless, it is not enough only to install several strain gauges into the bogie and link them to the instrumentation either. Ir is required to choose the proper fiber, for instance, bend-insensitive optical fibers are suitable. These are optical fibers where the diameter of the core includes 9.5-micrometer fibers with 4.5 mm long fiber Bragg gratings.

Additionally, it is necessary to properly install FBG systems to the bogie so as to act as a homogeneous part of the structure. Fiber Bragg gratings provide such benefits as efficient strain gauge transfer, capable to accommodate localized variations in the surface topology of the composite.

Optromix is a manufacturer of innovative fiber optic products for the global market. The company provides the most technologically advanced fiber optic solutions for the clients. Optromix produces a wide range of fiber optic devices, including cutting-edge customized fiber optic Bragg grating product line and fiber Bragg grating sensor systems. Moreover, Optromix is a top choice among the manufacturers of fiber Bragg grating monitoring systems. If you have any questions, please contact us at info@optromix.com