FBG sensors for Structural Health Monitoring

Structural health monitoring (SHM) is considered to be one of the most effective modern fiber optic technologies. Its aim is to provide robust information about engineering structures’ integrity and safety. Thanks to it, specialists can indicate the need for repair or retirement in advance and eliminate problems. Such a system of structural condition monitoring is based on fiber Bragg grating sensors.

FBG sensors for Structural Health Monitoring

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors as a part of structural health monitoring systems

FBG sensors have proved to be reliable monitoring instruments. Thanks to the variety of FBG sensors, they have a great advantage in comparison with other technologies.

The main types of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors:

  • Temperature sensors;
  • Strain sensors;
  • Displacement sensors;
  • Pressure sensors, etc.

Newly developed FBG sensors are widely applied to measure and register static values in various industries. Scientists have discovered their abilities in ultrasonic detection and capacity for ultrasonic structural health monitoring. To provide the accuracy of the results, ultrasonic detection needs a broad bandwidth and high sensitivity. That’s why Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors need to be properly designed, taking into account data process and installation methods.

Main steps for structural health monitoring implementation

SHM allows the predictive maintenance of engineering structures and machines. There is no need in turning the whole system off because structural health monitoring can detect damages while operating. Mechanisms can keep working over a long period of time.

There are three main steps for SHM implementation:

  • Finding the most suitable locations for FBG sensors. It means the modeling of the most probable simulation. Engineers identify critical areas where it is better to install sensors.
  • Data gathering. At this step, FBG sensors monitor the health of the structures in normal and maximum loading conditions. They need to know the usual numbers for loading conditions to see any differences in the future. The received data also allows conducting a statistical study to determine the normal functionality of the engineering structures.
  • Comparison of the received data and standard behavior rates. Special algorithm(s) allows comparison even without extra manpower. If the values obtained don’t match the predetermined level, the software defines whether there is a possibility of structural failure. If ‘yes’, then the program informs about problems that have arisen with warnings and alarms.

The areas in which structural health monitoring systems are most commonly used, for example, are the gas and oil industry. In addition, recently this technology has been applied on a fish farm. Specialists have designed a customized structural health monitoring system that allows them to see the whole picture of fish farming’s biological and technological aspects. Fiber optic technology still has a wide range of industries to develop.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for railway monitoring

For the last decade, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been attracting more attention from scientists all over the globe thanks to their numeral benefits. Nowadays, they are widely applied in health monitoring, aerospace, civil engineering, oil & gas, smart structures, etc. In this article, we will consider FBG sensors for one of the most used transportation systems, for railways.

FBG sensors in railway transport systems

Railway transport systems have faced a range of difficulties such as longer service availability, providing high safety levels, reduced energy consumption, and optimal operation. Monitoring systems should meet all of these tasks without interruption.

According to many successful pieces of research, fiber optic technology can provide all these aspects at once, it can be applied to ensure railway monitoring. It is important to understand the structural and operating conditions of rails and freight and passenger service cars to provide safe and reliable work.

FBG sensors for railway monitoring

The point is that FBG sensors have many crucial characteristics that perfectly suit railways’ operational conditions. For instance, it is a very long-range interrogation, that is better, especially in comparison with usual electrical sensors. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors are the only sensors that measure all the data and offer it in real-time. FBGs also are low susceptible to fluctuations. Moreover, they can be interrogated from any end.

All these features are especially significant for the railways in providing safe operations. In addition to that, FBGs are universal and can be applied for measuring many other parameters like inclination and acceleration over a large area.

Recent programs with fiber Bragg grating sensors

The most recent project where Fiber Bragg Grating sensors are involved is taken place in India. The main goal is to make the railways there safer with the help of fiber optic technology. Specialists have used sensing technology to reduce travel time and increase the trains’ speed between two states. The railway construction will be conducted by a developed structural health monitoring system.

Thanks to monitoring systems based on fiber optic solutions, rail corporations could easily get real-time data about rail structures’ conditions within 24 hours. Therefore, this feature will fast the warning alerts for possible damage detection. The fiber optic technology can be configured for any type of location and structure, even in vulnerable areas. It is specially referred to as earth slip locations, heavy rainfall areas, etc. However, recently only routine manual inspection is carried out in such cases. Constant monitoring with the FBG sensors will provide real rail safety in such areas.

The government considers that the potential of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is huge and can be applied in other projects on rail safety. It allows finding the structural defects out as early as possible, not only when an accident occurs. The preventative work gives an opportunity to avoid many troubles and mass casualties that happen.
All in all, thanks to constant real-time monitoring, timely warning alerts, and the possibility of applying in severe environmental circumstances, specialists can use fiber optic technology in many spheres, as well as railways.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensors for Industrial Sensing

Recently, researchers have presented a new generation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors that are covered with aluminum and copper. These FBG sensors are compact and hermetically sealed. Depending on the applied coating, they are resistant to high or low temperatures and can be applied in harsh environmental conditions. As well as gold-coated fiber Bragg grating sensors, they are representatives of a modern generation of humidity-proof different sensors, for example, temperature sensors, strain sensors, pressure sensors, etc.

Main Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors advantages

It’s a well-known fact that FBG sensors are widely applied in various fields and spheres thanks to their advantages. A lot of measurements in harsh environmental conditions would become possible by the usage of fiber optic technology.

Here are the most common advantages of fiber Bragg grating sensors:

  • absolute temperature and other measurements in comparison with usual electric sensors;
  • rapid linear response in strain, pressure, or temperature measurements;
  • the compact size of the construction reduces the weight and allows to use of many sensing points on a single fiber strand;
  • measurements over long distances;
  • acceptable price, etc.

FBG Sensors for Industrial Sensing

 

The new type of FBG Sensors

However, a usual FBG sensor with the glass fiber coating can have several limitations because of the high humidity, high temperatures, corrosion, etc. The new type of Fiber Bragg Gratings are embedded into optical fibers coated with aluminum, copper, or gold have much more applications.

Scientists have offered processes that allow providing two lays of metal coatings. It gives an opportunity to create different lengths of window stripping and make the second layer with the needed thickness and length.

In conclusion, we must say that scientists from all over the world keep finding new fiber optic solutions to solve the modern problems we face in real life. That means that fiber optic technology will be better and more effective every day.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Optic Sensors’ development as wearable

Over the last few decades, scientists could achieve considerable progress in creating wearable sensors. Wearable sensors are newly developed inventions that can detect physiological and biochemical markers for health monitoring. Fiber optic solutions such as fiber optic sensors were no exception and made a great contribution to this technology.

What are wearable sensors?

Wearable sensors have an enormous potential for the early detection of many diseases including Covid-19 by measuring numerous vital signs such as blood oxygen level, respiratory rate, etc. According to the studies on Covid-19, the most common symptoms are shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. Moreover, the blood oxygen level of an infected patient is lower because it is a respiratory disease. That’s why it was important to create a fiber optic technology capable of providing accurate data that would be useful for specialists and non-specialists alike people in quarantine or self-isolated.

Wearable Fiber Optic Sensors

Fiber optic sensors for medicine

Fiber optic sensors have attracted attention by development as flexible sensors. They usually consist of optical gratings and optical fibers embedded into polymeric matrices. For example, wearable systems based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) were developed for biomedical usage. Thanks to their small size, lightweight, and other advantages, they can be easily integrated into polymers or textiles.

FBGs were suggested as wearable sensors for respiratory measurement for the upper body like abdomen and chest movements. FBG output changes can show the respiratory rate and breathing pattern. Moreover, with the help of fiber optic sensors, specialists are able to receive information about cardiac activities. The suggested fiber optic system has high sensitivity and can respond to environmental factors, for instance, relative humidity, temperature, and water immersion. Researchers noticed that the temperature had more influence on them in comparison with water immersion and humidity. That means that this fiber optic system needs further investigation.

The new humidity sensors were also developed based on optical fibers. The humidity also influences the light intensity of the emitted light of optical fibers. This function was used for developing a fiber optic system to measure the level of the nasal exhaled breath for respiratory rate tracking. In this system, scientists have placed a Fiber Bragg grating in an agar substrate. This device with fiber optic sensors demonstrated reliable performance and nice sensitivity to relative humidity change.

Thanks to the newly designed wearable fiber optic sensors, it became possible to integrate the health data of each person and find the best option for him.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Optic Technology for corrosion detection

It is a well-known fact that fiber optic technology has a wide range of applications in different spheres, starting from medicine and ending with 3D visualization. In particular, it is applied in the oil and gas industry where Fiber Optic Technology solves several issues, including corrosion detection.

Corrosion impact and Fiber Optic Technology

Corrosion is the deterioration of the metal because of its being under exposure to electrochemical molecules that damage its surface and lead to other worse changes. It has already become a real problem for the oil and gas industry. According to the research in 2015, the annual cost amounted to $500,000 in the US. That’s a six-time bigger than the budget for natural disasters. In fact, 33 percent of the cases occurring in the gas and oil industry are connected to corrosion.

Fiber Optic Technology for corrosion detection

That is why scientists from all over the world are looking for new ways to solve the corrosion problem by using modern fiber optic solutions. There are several methods of corrosion detection, but fiber optic technology is still considered to be one of the most cost-effective ones.

FBG sensors to Detect Corrosion

Thanks to modern scientifically developed alloys, the number of corrosion cases has declined. However, there are still challenges connected to contaminating fluids that come into contact with the metals and accelerate the corrosion process. This can definitely lead to the compromising of the structures and lives of the wells over time.

Fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed sensing systems are considered to be some of the most cost-effective instruments that are created to locate corrosion at an early stage. Distributed sensing pipeline leak detection systems can be divided into two types: distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) or distributed temperature sensing (DTS). They are considered to be the most successful systems and are widely applied in many projects across tens of thousands of kilometers of pipelines.

That’s why FBG sensors are widely applied for corrosion detection in pipes. Fiber Bragg grating sensors transmit the data about the whole picture of the pipe’s integrity. So the corrosion can be noticed at the early stage at different levels. Thanks to the fiber optic technology, it is possible to reduce the detection period and the company losses because of the corrosion cases. Actually, the majority of gas and oil pipelines lie in urban wetlands, mountains, and forests that are the perfect environment for corrosion. And most of the pipes were not prepared for it.

That is why scientists have used the best advantages of distributed sensing to apply the FBG sensors as data lines and detectors. These FBG sensors are constantly reading the internal pipe material conditions caused by corrosion. The Fiber Bragg grating sensors read the thickness of the pipe and transmit the information to the center. They even have the ability to warn when the pipe drops below a 3 mm thickness. Moreover, FBG sensors help in detecting internal changes and events like flow constrictions and liquid accumulations. They can easily detect changes in temperature, noise, and vibration.

All in all, we must conclude that Fiber Bragg grating sensors rank among the most effective corrosion detection methods that allow solving the problem in time.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Optic Solutions for 3D visualization in agriculture

Scientists have developed a new technology based on the distributed sensing system. They have found a fiber optic solution for 3D visualization in real-time that demonstrates crop root growth. Moreover, the newly developed distributed sensing system serves as radar and can be applied to measure temperature, acoustic, strain, etc.

In fact, in the 21st-century farmers agree that soil fiber optic sensors play a crucial role in agricultural development. Thanks to the data received from fiber optic sensors and other advanced technologies, they can easily develop more precise uses of water and other inputs.

Fiber Optic Solutions in agriculture

Modern fiber optic technology in agriculture

According to recent studies, the plant root directly influences crop resilience and productivity rates. For instance, deep root architecture suits better for drought resistance. Thanks to it, it is possible to keep high crop yields even in the absence of rainfalls. In contrast, shallow root structures are better for paddy fields where there is a deficiency in oxygen. To speed the crops’ adaptation to such anticipated environmental conditions, scientists had an aim to create a system that would quickly provide data in real-time on root architecture. That is why they applied modern fiber optic technology.

The whole procedure of plant roots’ visualization seems to be difficult because it requires digging. Moreover, there is still a lack of convenient and high-resolution underground imaging systems that could help in studying plant root structures.

Fiber optic sensors for root growth monitoring

With the help of fiber optic technology, scientists prototype the newest imaging device which monitors root growth underground by using distributed fiber optic sensors. During the experiments, the fiber optic sensor was attached to a soft film and transformed into a spiral. Then a distributed sensing system was put into a pot filled with soil. As a result of the tests, scientists demonstrated that the distributed sensing system is able to detect small movements within solids even when a fiber optic sensor is placed into a film structure. This fiber optic solution provides a new approach to imaging movements in the field.

Each year researchers aim to turn farming technologies into a more automated sphere. The fiber optic sensors can help in it by providing more feedback on the soil conditions, temperature, etc. This modern device based on a distributed sensing system is an important addition to the next-generation agriculture instruments. It can be applied for data-driven automation.

According to scientists, this novel method with the usage of fiber optic sensors can also have other different applications. It can suit any small-scale perturbation occurring in solids, for instance, for monitoring worms’ movements through sediments or the propagation of mushrooms in loam.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors application in VR technology

Fiber Bragg Grating sensors application in VR technologyIt is not a secret that fiber optic technology already has a wide range of different applications starting with medicine and ending with road monitoring. However, scientists still have a lot of spheres for FBG sensors implementation. And the VR ecosystem is one of them.

So one Korean company has developed motion capture suits based on fiber optic solutions. This company is a developer of virtual reality technologies that aims to create a fully integrated VR ecosystem with the usage of fiber Bragg grating sensors.

VR entertainment is becoming more popular and capturing the minds of consumers. Nowadays, VR equipment can be installed at homes and other VR-based devices. Its applications are very diverse and can be applied in many industries, including education and even defense.

The FBG suits based on fiber optic technology are considered to be the fourth generation VR technologies. This generation intends to make VR more exciting and easily accessible. The previously created motion capture devices were much more expensive and required experience to work with. However, the company has solved both these problems with the help of fiber optic technology.

The company found out that there were some aspects that prevent VR adoption, for example, high installation costs and a long list of limitations. However, with the application of fiber optic sensors, the maintenance costs can be greatly reduced which will lead to greater adoption.

A lot of VR systems working on the principle of inertial sensor technology have a great number of cameras to detect a person’s movements. On the one hand, this method provides more accurate results. However, it also provides too much information that is needed to be handled. This factor makes it difficult to participate simultaneously for many users. Moreover, inertial sensor technology can be influenced by electromagnetic fields and cause an error.

The alternative design was developed with the usage of FBG sensors. This fiber optic technology is based on recognizing a person’s position through the refraction of light in the fiber optic cable. Fiber optic sensors precisely measure joint movement. Moreover, it can be used for a long perspective, providing no errors. According to scientists, this is a new implementation of FBG sensors into the existing products.

Now the company plans to deliver suites based on FBG sensors for VR applications in various fields and for different producers. And scientists hope to work in this direction further.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors for healthcare applications

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for healthcareA collaboration of scientists from different countries (China, Pakistan, and Hong Kong) have developed new 3D printed FBG sensors that can help in creating the ‘smart beds’. Scientists have worked to determine the main advantages of the innovative 3D printed FBG sensors and their applications in different spheres.

3D printing has demonstrated enormous results in different scientific fields. It helps to reduce the costs and makes the production process much easier for the developers. The university scientists have already applied it in their different devices with potential healthcare applications.

The main goal of this development based on the fiber Bragg grating sensors was to track sleeping patterns with high precision. First, the research team hopes that this fiber optic solution can be helpful for hospitals to monitor the well being of patients. Moreover, these fiber Bragg grating sensors are temperature-insensitive, lightweight, and high-accurate. That increases their chances to be installed in more hospitals and improves the quality of care because the staff could respond more quickly when the patients’ condition deteriorates.

Usually, FBGs are a microstructure that length is a few millimeters. It is implemented into a short optical fiber that can transform the light in response to temperature, strain, or vibration. FBG sensors are highly applied in mechanical engineering, textile, and medical spheres, thanks to their high thermal sensitivity.

Nowadays, the production of FBG sensors for healthcare still remains a time-consuming and equipment-intensive process that is hard to replicate. While 3D printing is an advanced technology that allows the creation of complex FBG sensing devices. Moreover, fiber Bragg grating sensors have never been applied to sleep-monitoring.

During the first experiments, the 3D printed FBG sensors were tested while putting under pressure loads. Each device demonstrated a number of consistent wavelengths which leads to the possibility of providing reliable readings. The final tests on fiber Bragg grating sensors were held by placing them under the mattress of a bed. A person demonstrated several sleeping positions while the FBG sensors were tracking his changes in posture.

According to the results, the FBG sensors’ readings were almost precise and had an error rate of less than 1%. Nevertheless, the research team considers that this fiber optic technology still has potential in the future. They could, for example, track a patient’s breathing and identify when the heart rate has begun to fall. And that is not the first time that fiber optic technology can prove beneficial to medicine.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

FBG sensors in monitoring road conditions

FBG sensors monitoring road conditionsScientists from Latvia made a number of experiments using fiber optic technology for monitoring the condition of the road surface. They chose special FBG sensors that can collect data about roadway changes, like changes in the strain and temperature. These fiber optic solutions that also include applying fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) will help in designing reliable roads and planning for road repairs.

The process of pavement destroying can’t be completely stopped. However, we can apply more strong materials and repair small cracks in the structure at the early stages. That is why we require new monitoring methods and the most effective ways are fiber optic solutions.

According to the research, the fiber sensors could define the roadway defects and measure the load on the site. So with the help of fiber optic sensors, it will be possible to consider the pressure and vibration created by transport in the area and strengthen the coverage in the right places.

Scientists chose fiber optic systems because fiber optic sensors are highly sensitive and do not require a power supply. Fiber sensors can be installed in an existing fiber optic network and receive data remotely. The basis of fiber optic sensors contains fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). It is a section in the middle of an optical fiber, where the refractive index of light has been changed using ultraviolet radiation. As a result, such a section always reflects radiation only in a very small part of the spectrum and transmits the rest of the light without loss. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) can be formed so that the wavelength of the reflected light depends on changes in temperature, pressure, or other physical aspects. Because of these parameters, fiber Bragg grating sensors are effective for application.

Scientists placed two types of fiber optic sensors on one of the highways during its renovation. The first one measured deformations in construction, the other detected temperature. Since unprotected fiber sensors are quite fragile, they were packed in composite and ceramic tubes. The first test demonstrated that the most precise strain measurements are possible when the load is placed exactly at the location of the fiber optic sensors. Researchers also specified that temperature plays a crucial role in the deformations of the asphalt. And the final key aspect of the tests with fiber optic technology was monitoring real traffic and defining the truck’s quantity.

Finally, the experiments demonstrate that fiber optic sensors can measure the deformations of the roadway with sufficient accuracy. By applying FBG sensors specialists can determine the moment when the limit of permissible deformations will be exceeded in the selected area. That will definitely help in designing new roads and repairing the existing ones.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, FBG strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com

Fiber Optic Technology and its recent advances

Fiber Optic Technology advancesDuring the last 60 years, fiber optic technology has been applied to improve the efficiency of developed systems in various spheres like medicine, vehicles, and other industries. Modern fiber optic solutions expand the abilities by implementing levels of data and sensing technology in the energy, medical field, and even aerospace. There are various fiber optic solutions that help researchers improve their development and make new discoveries in science.

Intrinsic and extrinsic fiber optic sensors are two wide categories of fiber optic sensors. Extrinsic fiber optic sensors utilize the fiber to manage the light to a sensing region. Then the optical signal is modulated in another environment. Talking about the intrinsic fiber optic sensors, the light remains within the waveguide. So it measures the influence of the optical fiber signal.

Intrinsic fiber optic sensor technology, where the fiber optic sensor is the fiber optic cable itself, has improved significantly during recent years. There are two main technologies connected to intrinsic fiber optic sensors: scattering and FBG. FBG methods can be fully distributed or have many sensing points. With the help of FBG sensors, scientists can define the changes by getting precise measurements. Scattering techniques depend on natural imperfections occurring in the fiber optic cable. The FBGs have a high signal-to-noise ratio in comparison with scattering techniques.

Both scattering and FBGs use different demodulation techniques. Scattering techniques get the information by observing changes in naturally back-scattering patterns. For FBG based technology, wavelength division multiplexing is the most prevalent demodulation technique. However, in certain circumstances, optical frequency domain reflectometry can become the most useful method.

Wavelength division multiplexing is able to spread to large distances and get the data rapidly. This technology can also support multiple fiber Bragg gratings on a fiber. It observes critical points more than the whole field of the data. That is why it is mostly applied in automobile crash testing as a monitoring instrument.

The scattering techniques can cover long distances and give a distributed profile of the data. They obtain information all over the entire fiber optic cable. Many systems on the market measure temperature or acoustics and are called Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) or Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS). These techniques are usually applied in monitoring a pipeline for tampering, for example, where there is no need for high-speed acquisition.

Optical frequency domain reflectometry is another demodulation technique that is mostly applied with FBG sensors where fiber Bragg gratings are placed really close and create a fully distributed sensing fiber. It has many advantages like the combination of high spatial resolution, a bunch of fiber optic sensors, a quick refresh rate, and a full distribution set. Apart from distributed sensing of a strain and temperature, this technology allows defining 2D deflection, liquid level, magnetic fields, etc.

Nowadays, thanks to fiber optic technology, scientists have an opportunity to solve any problems in their designs by using fiber optic systems. And there are still many possibilities for fiber optic technology in the future.

Optromix is a fast-growing vendor of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) product line such as fiber Bragg grating sensors, for example, fbg strain sensors, FBG interrogators and multiplexers, Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) systems, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) systems. The company creates and supplies a broad variety of fiber optic solutions for monitoring worldwide. If you are interested in structural health monitoring systems and want to learn more, please contact us at info@optromix.com