Fiber Bragg grating technology (FBG technology) offers fiber optic sensors that allow carrying out the measurement of such parameters like temperature and/or mechanical strain. However, the high cost of fiber sensing systems is considered to be a major disadvantage for commercial applications.
It should be noted that the popularity and fast growth of fiber optic technology for sensing applications promote numerous research in various areas, for example, industry, medicine, aerospace, civil applications where such physical and chemicals factors as acceleration, level, temperature, strain, pressure, deformation, refractive index play a very important role.
Optical fiber sensors are perfect for use in the mentioned measurements. Fiber optic technology offers numerous benefits that include “intrinsic safety, resistance to chemical corrosion, immunity to electromagnetic interference, electric isolation, compact size, lightweight sensing heads, high resolution, easy multiplexing, and capability for extremely remote monitoring without the need of electrical power at the measuring point”.
Moreover, fiber Bragg gratings are the most used technology for the measurement of temperature and/or mechanical strain parameters among other optical fiber sensors. To be more precise, the term “fiber Bragg gratings defines as nanometer periodical refractive index changes engraved in an optical ﬁber core.”
The principle of FBG technology operation is based on the injection of a broadband light spectrum in the optical fiber. Herewith, there is a concentration of the reflected spectrum at the fiber Bragg grating wavelength, herewith, it is possible to see a suppression in the transmitted signal at the same wavelength.
Additionally, the same operation principle of the FBG technology is used in new and more complex structures, for example, planar FBG sensors. Thus, the FBGs offer very precise measurements due to the wavelength that is considered to be a permanent feature of the signal along the optical fibers.
Nevertheless, the FBG interrogators have some challenges in large commercial applications because of their high cost. That is why the development of new, low-cost alternatives to the current FBG interrogators is highly required. Therefore, there are several solutions to the present problem.
One of the solutions is the use of frequency-to-amplitude conversion (a fast and low-cost FBG interrogation technology), in which the spectral variations of fiber Bragg gratings are straightforwardly transmitted into optical power variations. Herewith, the presented FBG technology is based on the twist between both the FBG sensors and the edge filter spectra.
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